Godda District - AN Overview
The Godda district is situated in the North East of Jharkhand State. Godda is 350 Kms away from Ranchi. It is surrounded by Sahebganj & Pakur district in the East, Bhagalpur district of Bihar State in North & West and Dumka district in the South. It is situated between 240.47' to 250.23' Northern Latitude and between 870.08' to 870.48' Eastern Longitude.
Godda district came into existence on 25th May 1983, after being carved out from the district of Santhal Pergana. Since 1855, Godda has been a sub-division of Santhal Pargana.
Historically no systematic document about the district seems to be available. Still a number of stone weapons and tools such as axes, hammers, arrow-leads or agricultural implements found in the Santhal Pargana, obviously confirmed the fact that like other parts of the world this region too had experienced the living of stone age and certainly would have been the inhabitants of this region during early Vedic age .
Detailed account of this region until the time of Hiuen Tsiang - a Chinese pilgrim, who visited Champa about 645 A.D ,is not available. During that time the area of Santhal Pargana was under the Pal rule who was the great patron of Buddhism . At the time of Turko-Afgan rule when Shershah Suri and his heirs were the administrators , this area was of strategic significance in course of getting possession over Bengal . Later on under Muslim rule this area was received as Jagir by Governor Raja Mansingh from Mugal emperor Akbar.
By 1717 the Santhal tribe which inhabited in Santhal Pargana gradually became victim of Britishers policy of exploitation and they being united rebelled against the Britishers in 1855 which was termed as '' Hul '' . This rebellion was so terrific and troublesome for the Britishers that they were compelled to accord Santhal Pargana the status of district separating it from Bhagalpur and Birbhum to protect culture, tradition socio- economic structure of aboriginals and primitive tribes.
The geographical area of the district is 2110.40 Sq. Km, of which cultivable land is 131140 Hect and the area covered with forest is 37172.92 Hect.
The climate of the district is of diverse nature. Average rainfall of this district is 1094.9 mm. In summer, the average maximum temperature is 410 C and average minimum is 280 C and in winter, the average maximum temperature is 280 and average minimum is 130 C respectively.
Rivers and Ravines
Sunder, Kajhia, Harna, Tribeni, Doi, Geruwa, Kauwa, Gumani are the main rivers.
None of the rivers are perennial, Almost all the rivers dry up by the end of rainy season, they appears merely beds of sand with little or no water but generally they hold sufficient water below.
The whole district is having a mixed type of topography where the hills & hillocks are scattered through out the area. Almost all the eight blocks of the district are having both hilly & plain tracks. Most of the parts of the Boarijore & Sunderpahari blocks are covered with Rajmahal hills.
The district consists of 8 Community Development Blocks & 8 Revenue Circles namely Godda, Pathergama, Mahagama, Meharma, Thakurgangti, Boarijore, Sunderpahari & Poraiyahat. The total no. of Police Station and out posts are 13 in numbers.
(i)Yogini Shakti Peeth :- Situated near Lakhanpahari village at the distance of 2 Kms from Pathergama, has got religions diminance. According to the old story, legend lord Shiva, carrying the charred body of Sati , started Tandava Nirtya and wherever the part of the limb of Sati fell temple of Shakti came up in due course. In the process the thigh of Sati Uma is to have fallen here. Symbolic stone impression is being worshipped with great devotion. Tuesday and Saturday are considered the auspicious day when thousands of devotees come from far off. The shrine has an aura of divine sublimity which tends to give peace of mind and repose faith in the devotees.
(ii) Basantrai :- This place is at the distance of 12 Kms from the headquarter of Pathergama Block which was inhabited by Raja Basant Rai . There existed a big tank in 50 acres of land . According to legend, no one has ever been able to cross the tank from one end to another whether by swimming or an elephant or in a boat. If any one ventured to do so he would find enciected his feet and dragged himself down to the watery grave . It is also believed that the tank was being invited on the occasion of marriages or any kind of social ceremonies and people asking for utensils required for the occasion could get miraculously from the water of the tank. Purpose being served these materials were bound to be returned to the tank failing which they had to face calamity or misfortune . This belief is still relied up-on and it is held sacred for Hindus and a big MELA (fair) is held on its bank for 15 days beginning from Chaita Sankranti festival i.e. 14th April.
(iii) Sundar Dam :- Sundar dam is the biggest irrigatoinal project in this district cunstructed on Sundar river near Rajabhitha village north-east of Pathargama and this is a beautiful picnic spot for the tourist. The dam having 75 Ft. depth was constructed between 1970-78.
(iv) Mullers Tank :- This tank constructed by Fredrick Max Muller is situated in the district headquarter.
1. Land Revenue :- The district is having sufficient fertile cultivable land. Out of 2110.40 Sq Km. 131140 Hect is cultivable land. The total forest cover is 37172.92 Hect.
2. Water Resources :- The Godda district depends heavily on Mansoon for carrying the agricultural operation. There is no perennial river in the district. There are some small river & Pahari nalas where water is available only for few months during the rainy season. The irrigation facility is also very limited/ less developed. Failure of Mansoon often leads to drought condition in the district.
3. Forest Resources :-The total area under forest 37172.92 Hect. Most of the forest cover is in the hilly tracks of the district. The common species found in these forests are Mango, Sagwan, Shisham, Sakhua, Yukeliptus, Jackfruit, Gambar etc. The medicinal trees likes Neem- Tulsi, Harrey, Bahera, Amla, Khair etc are also found in abundance.
4. Mineral Resources :-The Godda district is very rich in Coal. A major ECL project of Coal mines is going on in the Boarijore, Mahagama & Sunderpahari Block. The entire coal required for NTPC Kahalgaon & Farakka is supplied through this project.
5. Human Resources :- The labour force of the district is comprised of both skilled and unskilled type. The unskilled labourers are engaged in works such as construction work, agricultural works, brick klin work etc., whereas the skilled work force is engaged in small and cottage industry like Bidi industry, Pattal plate industry, Masala, Silk wearing, mining etc. But, due to lack of professional training Institutes, the number of trained and professional work force is limited in the district.
Approximately more than 80% of the district population is engaged in agricultural work for their livelyhood. Animal husbandary is another important activity on which sizable amount of population depends. In the whole district, Dairy, Goat rearing, Piggery, Poultry, Sericulture, Pisciculture are important allied activities. The major coal mines project also consumes maximum of employment of the district. Other cottage and village industry scattere through of the district.
Agriculture & Allied activities
Agriculture is the main economic activity of the district, with the major crops being
Paddy, Wheat, Maize, Gram, Green graw, Moong, Sugarcane etc. Inspite of having
sufficient cultivable land, the productivity is not up to the mark. The major bottlenecks in
the field of agricultural development is lack of inadequate irrigational
facilities, small land holding ,old techniques of farming and inadequate marketing
facilities to the farmers.
Under allied activities fishery and dairy are the two important sectors upon which
a large section of the rural people of the district are dependent. There are large number
of ponds on public and private land in which fishing activity is carried on, but due to lack
of renovation work in these ponds, marketing & training of modern technique in fishery
development, this sector is lagging far behind.
In dairy farming, all the eight blocks of the district have a sizable amount of milch
animal population. But due to lack of superior variety of milch animals and absence of
chilling plants, this sector has not achieved its potential.